Modules are used for object oriented programming.
The general form is
module <name> <use statements> <declarations> contains <subroutines and functions> end module <name>
There are three possible access properties:
public, private, protected.
public: Outside code has read and write access.
private: Outside code has no access.
public, protected: Outside code has read access.
One can include the module’s public data in outside code. There are three ways.
use <moduleName>: includes all public data and methods
use <moduleName>, <renames>: includes all public data and methods, but renames some public data or methods
use <moduleName>, only : <subset>: includes only some public data and methods
These examples highlight the above methods using the following module.
!> \file test_module.f module test_module implicit none private integer, public :: a=1 integer, public, protected :: b=1 integer, private :: c=1 end module test_module
!> \file main.f program main use test_module ! accessing public object works print *, a ! editing public object works a = 2 ! accessing protected object works print *, b ! editing protected object does not work !b = 2 <- ERROR ! accessing private object does not work !print *, c <- ERROR ! editing protected object does not work !c = 2 <- ERROR end program main
!> \file main1.f program main use test_module print *, a, b end program main
!> \file main2.f program main use test_module, better_name => a ! new name use available print *, better_name ! old name is not available anymore !print *, a <- ERROR end program main
!> show using only program main use test_module, only : a ! only a is loaded print *, a ! b is not loaded !print *, b <- ERROR end program main